Heart Beat Monitoring

10:42 pm by Admir. Postuar tek: Electronics Engineering Project


This paper describes the design of a simple, low-cost microcontroller based heart rate measuring device with LCD output. Heart rate of the subject is measured from the finger using sensors and the rate is then averaged and displayed on a text based LCD.

The LCD of the heart beat monitor shows the beat per minute.The sensor part consists of sensing elements,LDR(light dependent resistor) and LED(light emitting diode),a comparator module,a low pass filter.Heart beat is sensed by the sensing elements and the comparator produces an amplified square wave output.The comparator output is given to a low pass filter and the filter output is fed to one of the digital inputs of PIC 16F877a type micro controller. The micro controller output ports drives the LCD.

This paper describes the design of a very low-cost device which measures the heart rate of the subject by clipping sensors on one of the fingers and then displaying the result on a text based LCD. Advantage of such a design is that it can be expanded and can easily be connected to a recording device or a PC to collect and analyse the data for over a period of time.

Heart rate measurement is one of the very important parameters of the human cardiovascular system. The heart rate of a healthy adult at rest is around 72 beats per minute (bpm). Athletes normally have lower heart rates than less active people. Babies have a much higher heart rate at around 120 bpm, while older children have heart rates at around 90 bpm. The heart rate rises gradually during exercises and returns slowly to the rest value after exercise. The rate when the pulse returns to normal is an indication of the fitness of the person.

Heart rate is simply and traditionally measured by placing the thumb over the subject’s arterial pulsation, and feeling, timing and counting the pulses usually in a 5 second period. Heart rate (bpm) of the subject is then found by multiplying the obtained number by 12. This method although simple, is not accurate and can give errors when the rate is high. More sophisticated methods to measure the heart rate utilize electronic techniques.

Electro-cardiogram (ECG) is one of frequently used and accurate methods for measuring the heart rate. ECG is an expensive device and its use for the measurement of the heart rate only is not economical. Low-cost devices in the form of wrist watches are also available for the instantaneous measurement of the heart rate. Such devices can give accurate measurements but their cost is usually in excess of several hundred dollars, making them uneconomical. Most hospitals and clinics in the UK use integrated devices designed to measure the heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature of the subject. Although such devices are useful, their cost is usually high and beyond the reach of individuals.



Lie Detector

10:32 pm by Admir. Postuar tek: FreeMind
We surely have come a long way in technological developments. Who among us would have envisioned a machine that could figure out whether a person was lying or not? There was time when finding this secret was just in hands of mystical beings or God. Isn’t it startling how a machine can read a person’s mind?
Inventor of Lie detector called it cardio-pneumo-psychograph. It was a magic box that had the power to peep in one’s mind and figure out who was pilfering jewelry and cash at college boardinghouse. But to future generations and newspaper reading people, this magic box was lie detector, a machine to help a way out of doubtful scientific credentials and dubious ethical aura.
In the era that led to birth of scientific industrial management, I.Q. test and time motion study, a group of American Inventors and the social reformers had dreamt of a device that could separate truth from the deception by measuring body responses like pulse rate, blood pressure.
One of the early proponents claimed that this ‘mechanical instrument of future’ would replace jury deliberations, conventional police interrogations. It would also lend a hand to government and private companies in weeding out spies, thieves. It would beam in deepest corners of human psyche and advancing works of psychiatrists. But the man behind the invention, John Larson despaired while taking his breaths and called it a Frankenstein’s monster that had sucked 40 years of his life.
The persistent as well as unusual grip of the lie detector on American thoughts provided rich material for Lie Detector’s invention. Various cases including that of Torso Murderers, Cleveland, story of Dick Tracy or William James stirred with scientific visions led to invention of lie detector.
Earliest antecedents of modern lie detector come from device that used trial by torture or ordeal. During Middle Ages in the Europe, torture was the practice that rooted from theory that stated – an agonizing body could oblige a lying mind to croak the secret out. But in 1730, this method of torture for extracting the truth from a person made an exit and a new lie detection method took over. Daniel Defoe was the earliest of men to suggest such a method through evaluation of heart rate. In 18th century, the torturous methods declined completely due to continuous campaigns against the judicial torture in the Europe. This humane way of detecting lie through lie detector was accepted by majority during this time.
The evolution of lie detector was slow but was a pioneering invention for the entire mankind. The emergence started slowly with the initial tests for determining the physical responses during act of deception. Cesare Lombroso also known as Father of the Modern Criminology was the first one to try of application of science for detecting deception. He made use of device known as plethysmograph that monitored changes in blood flow of person at the time of interrogation.
Another breakthrough came in the year 1897 with development of method to measure galvanic responses by B. Sticker. This method used amount of sweat produced on skin with the help of electric conductibility during the test. And in 1914, breathing rate measurement using the pneumatic tubing was done by Vittorio Benussi. This device was draped around the person’s chest for measuring the rate and depth of breath. Benussi discovered ratio of expiration and inspiration was usually greater at the time of truth telling than lying. This method of truth discovery by Benussi gave an important revelation that it was not just pulse rate, sweat production and the blood pressure that helped in lie detection but the breathing rates too. All these findings amalgamated together formed the modern day lie detector known as polygraph.
Earliest machine that took name of polygraph was originally copy machine invented by John Hawkins in year 1804. Name of the machine simply meant ‘many writings’, originated from Greek, early polygraph allowed users to write with the two pens at the same time, creating duplicate copy. In year 1908, an English doctor named James MacKenzie publicized in ink polygraph invention for monitoring cardiovascular responses of the subject taking blood pressure and pulse.
After a few years, in year 1915, William Marston who was American psychologist, started demonstrated lie detection tests to determine whether subject was deceptive using blood pressure cuffs for taking measurements of the systolic BP at the time of interrogation. He was of the strong view that the interrogation techniques used at conjunction with technology than technology itself that led to detection of lies.
As lie detector captured imagination of public, imitators soon entered the field. A doctor from Chicago doctor, Orlando Scott, endorsed Thought Wave Detector, with claims that it had the capability of tapping electrical current of brain. While suspect squirmed and sweated, a big needle sung forth and backwards between true and false option on a big dial.
Despite of the charlatans like Dr. Scott, lie detector made the headway in search for its respect and acceptance. In year 1923, legal decision barred the tests by lie detectors being used as the evidence in courtroom but at places like factories, government department, banks this magic box carved a place for itself offering an efficient solution for detection.
Advertisers too flirted briefly in various tests for finding what consumers thought about their gasoline, cigarettes and razors. Keeping censors in mind, even film executives used the findings for editing of films like Frankenstein. During cold war too, lie detectors were used by State Department for weeding Communist sympathizers out. Lie detectors have proved to be an amazingly useful technology for the world.



SNMP checking with snmpwalk and snmpget

9:59 am by Admir. Postuar tek: Linux

So you have a snmpd daemon running on some box and you want to retrieve information from it, there are 2 cool tools out there namely snmpwalk and snmpget, but you can use more advanced systems like nagios etc..

Check with a client with:


arditi@blackbox:~$ snmpget -v 2c -c public system.sysUpTime.0
DISMAN-EVENT-MIB::sysUpTimeInstance = Timeticks: (45385010) 5 days, 6:04:10.10

Check installed packages on the system and version as well (it’s like rpm -qa)

snmpwalk -Ov -OQ -v2c -c public .


arditi@blackbox:~$ snmpwalk -Os -c public -v 2c system
sysDescr.0 = STRING: Linux butters.localdomain #1 SMP Thu Nov 26 12:12:03 EST 2009 i686
sysObjectID.0 = OID: netSnmpAgentOIDs.10
sysUpTimeInstance = Timeticks: (45411055) 5 days, 6:08:30.55
sysContact.0 = STRING: butters <a.xxxx@xxx.xxx>
sysName.0 = STRING: butters.localdomain
sysLocation.0 = STRING: Unknown
sysORLastChange.0 = Timeticks: (179) 0:00:01.79
sysORID.1 = OID: snmpFrameworkMIBCompliance
sysORID.2 = OID: snmpMPDCompliance
sysORID.3 = OID: usmMIBCompliance
sysORID.4 = OID: snmpMIB
sysORID.5 = OID: tcpMIB
sysORID.6 = OID: ip
sysORID.7 = OID: udpMIB
sysORID.8 = OID: vacmBasicGroup
sysORDescr.1 = STRING: The SNMP Management Architecture MIB.
sysORDescr.2 = STRING: The MIB for Message Processing and Dispatching.
sysORDescr.3 = STRING: The management information definitions for the SNMP User-based Security Model.
sysORDescr.4 = STRING: The MIB module for SNMPv2 entities
sysORDescr.5 = STRING: The MIB module for managing TCP implementations
sysORDescr.6 = STRING: The MIB module for managing IP and ICMP implementations
sysORDescr.7 = STRING: The MIB module for managing UDP implementations
sysORDescr.8 = STRING: View-based Access Control Model for SNMP.
sysORUpTime.1 = Timeticks: (178) 0:00:01.78
sysORUpTime.2 = Timeticks: (178) 0:00:01.78
sysORUpTime.3 = Timeticks: (178) 0:00:01.78
sysORUpTime.4 = Timeticks: (179) 0:00:01.79
sysORUpTime.5 = Timeticks: (179) 0:00:01.79
sysORUpTime.6 = Timeticks: (179) 0:00:01.79
sysORUpTime.7 = Timeticks: (179) 0:00:01.79
sysORUpTime.8 = Timeticks: (179) 0:00:01.79


snmpwalk -v 2c -c public



How to bypass forum registrations

7:23 pm by Admir. Postuar tek: LoLx

Yep, it’s quite a dummy question and the answer is quite simple but many ppl don’t know.
Normally you don’t want to register on all forum’s that you visit but most of them ask you for registration in order to view a post, and the solution (again) is very easy.

Normally most of webmasters ask registration to normal users but they have a “whitelist” rule for bot’s like Google Bot, Yahoo Slurp, MSN bot etc…
So I think you got it, just change your user-agent to some bot and you will be able to view the posts without the annoying registration procedure. So you will bypass the registration forms because normally webmasters let always a door open for Google in order to get up in the web search.

Currently this can be done by adding a firefox plugin, opera currently support only switching to IE or FF but not a bot.



Opera Turbo and Free Proxy :) ??

10:01 pm by Admir. Postuar tek: FreeMind,News


Hmm, all good news right? , get this for free , do that for free…. yes , …. for free ;)

Intro – IE and FireFox

Now, I really dislike Internet Explorer, because it’s Made In Microsoft of course , it’s very incompatible with the web, it’s very dummy and it crash everyday.

Anyway I’m not interested in it as I use Linux and only linux. At work I was debugging something and I was tailing squid acces.log and while my firefox was up and running I saw allot of data chunks sent to “google safebrowsing” and google of course was collecting all of this data.
Now if there is a way to disable this, I don’t know and don’t want to as Mozilla never warned me about my cache and website sent to google for statistical or other purposes.
Now this is really ugly, and I really don’t like Mozilla now for this specific reason.


Opera was all ways my favorite browser, had allot of services, like mail, irc, debugging tools, and quite good security and cookie control.
Now I was interested in “Opera Turbo” and how this worked, I thought normally an Opera server should be in the middle between me and the website.
While Opera Turbo was active, I visited an “show my IP website” and I saw that the IP was not mine but was an Opera IP (this is a proof normally that I was using a Proxy).
I was curious and made a lame active port-scan with nmap (sorry , hping and passive scan rules but I was to lazy).
This is the result (of course the IP / time and hostname are edited):

Opera Turbo – Server IP Nmap report

So, as you can see the Port’s of Interest are:

12419	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12420	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12421	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12422	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12423	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12424	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12425	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12426	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12427	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12428	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12429	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12430	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12431	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12432	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12433	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12434	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12435	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12436	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12437	tcp	open	 	syn-ack
12438	tcp	open	 	syn-ack

This are all proxies (nmap doesn’t say much about them but I will dig later).

Another point of interest is the traceroute that shows how near the Proxy Server is:

Hop	Rtt	IP	Host
1	10.20	*
3	37.48
4	29.06
5	14.08
6	51.88	asd1-asd-asd.net
7	17.90
8	54.51	asd2-asd-asd.net
9	70.14	asd.asd-com.net

From this data we can say that:

1) When we activate Opera turbo an request is made to Opera Proxies and a near proxy is assigned – we can say the nearer.
2) There is not just a single proxy, I think this network of many Opera Proxies is connected with each-other at high speed an of course we have load-balancing in here.
3) That’s not all, when we use squid, there is an option called “parent proxy” and normally when the proxy check his cache and don’t find anything than check the cache of an parent proxy, so when we make a simple request to website.com this request is intercepted by Opera Turbo (because it’s activated right?) now
- if the proxy have the content ? – yep good, really fast response
- if the proxy didn’t have the content ? – the proxy itself ask the parent proxies and if the content is found is presented to Opera Browser (again, good , fast response)
- if the proxy didn’t found the content in his cache and also in parent proxies? An normal request is done, and I think this is a bit more slower than a normal request made by the browser without Opera Turbo.


Is this really a Proxy?

If you mean with proxy “hiding your IP” that in deed doesn’t make you “anonymous” than the answer is NO, this is because the Opera Proxy always use  HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR (check wikipedia for more info) in the HTTP header and this practically show to the destination the originating IP address, in this case your IP or one of your ISP IP’s assigned to your network.
I tried to find out what’s running on this port (i.e maybe squid or something) but with no success until now :)



Bash Shortcuts Quick Reference

2:38 pm by Admir. Postuar tek: Linux
Ctrl-a Move to the start of the line.
Ctrl-e Move to the end of the line.
Ctrl-b Move back one character.
Alt-b Move back one word.
Ctrl-f Move forward one character.
Alt-f Move forward one word.
Ctrl-] x Where x is any character, moves the cursor forward to the next occurance of x.
Alt-Ctrl-] x Where x is any character, moves the cursor backwards to the previous occurance of x.
Ctrl-u Delete from the cursor to the beginning of the line.
Ctrl-k Delete from the cursor to the end of the line.
Ctrl-w Delete from the cursor to the start of the word.
Esc-Del Delete previous word (may not work, instead try Esc followed by Backspace)
Ctrl-y Pastes text from the clipboard.
Ctrl-l Clear the screen leaving the current line at the top of the screen.
Ctrl-x Ctrl-u Undo the last changes. Ctrl-_ does the same
Alt-r Undo all changes to the line.
Alt-Ctrl-e Expand command line.
Ctrl-r Incremental reverse search of history.
Alt-p Non-incremental reverse search of history.
!! Execute last command in history
!abc Execute last command in history beginning with abc
!abc:p Print last command in history beginning with abc
!n Execute nth command in history
!$ Last argument of last command
!^ First argument of last command
^abc^xyz Replace first occurance of abc with xyz in last command and execute it



Enable HAVP in “debug” mode.

8:32 am by Admir. Postuar tek: Linux

Problems with HAVP, want more output from HAVP log file?

Edit /etc/havp/havp.conf add



LOG_OKS true


/etc/init.d/havp restart or /etc/rc.d/havp restart depending on your linux distribution.





Spliting and Sorting a very big wordlist :)

6:03 am by Admir. Postuar tek: Linux,LoLx


So here the problem , I have a really big 8GB wordlist file with very good pwd’s generated from the best password list files on the net. At first, after catting all and putting in the same place I thought that would be better to split the big file in mini files so (thought wrong, but anyway) :

[cc lang="BASH"]
split –bytes=35MB -d -a 3 aw-bruto.txt

–bytes to specify the size of this “mini” files, -d to say I want them “numbered” and -a to specify the suffix lenght.

So I got a list with many files named x001 => x225 and now I want to sort them in order to get a single file but sorted -u

[cc lang="BASH"]
cat * | sort -u –compress-program=bzip2 –debug >> aw-sorted.txt

-u to remove all dupplicated passwords.
What’s next?

I had also to remove the mess of unwanted characters binary etc, so:
[cc lang="BASH"]cat aw-sorted.txt | tr -cd ‘\11\12\40-\176′ >> aw-clear.txt
cat aw-clear.txt | tr -cd [:cntrl:] >> aw-clear1.txt

man tr for more info.
Than you can modify with john, or crunch and than split the file with pw-inspector (you need hydra installed) and modify the pwd’s as you whish.



Operation not supported – Pcmanfm – mount issue

5:42 am by Admir. Postuar tek: Linux

If you found this post you know already what’s all about.
You cannot mount automatically external storage support on your linux box and you have dbus in your daemon list (up and running).

This problem normally it’s caused by a mis-configuration when using some login managers like slim.
TO FIX THIS, modify the line under:
#login_cmd exec /bin/sh – ~/.xinitrc %session

[cc lang="C"]login_cmd exec ck-launch-session /bin/bash -login ~/.xinitrc %session[/cc]

And remove teh ck-launch-session from your .xinitrc leaving it simple as:

exec openbox-session